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In this section you will first find the language summaries and exercises for the conditionals and other contents of Grade 12th. Secondly, you can find the explanation of the most important grammatical structures studied in Grades 10 and 11, since you will need to integrate them in your speech when expressing the different communicative functions of this grade.



Language Summary 1

There are three types of conditional sentences.

Type 1(real present) expresses something true or likely to happen in the present or future.

If + any present form (hypothesis) – Future – Imperative – Present simple (main clause)

Ex: If I see him, I’ll tell him to call you.

Sometimes we use might to express that some possibility exists in the present.

Examples

-- If you drive carelessly, you might have an accident.

-- If the weather is very hot today, it might rain again.

-- If he doesn’t plan his work in advance, he might need more time than necessary.



Language Summary 2

Often the conditions are not very probable.



EXAMPLES:

If I studied more, I would have better marks.

If you did like your brother, you could learn all the words.

When using BE sometimes the condition is impossible.

EXAMPLES:

If I were you, I would answer more politely.

If my brother were here, you would see how much we resemble each other.



Type 2 (unreal present) expresses something untrue in the present. It is also used to give advice.
 
If + Past Simple or Continuous (hypothesis) would – could - might + bare infinitive (main clause)

Ex: If I were you, I would apologize.

were¨ can be used in all persons instead of ¨was¨ in conditional types)

Type 3 (unreal past) expresses an imaginary situation contrary to facts in the past. It is also used to express regrets or criticism.

If + past perfect (hypothesis) – would – could – might + have + past participle (main clause)

Ex: If he had come on time, we wouldn’t have missed the flight.

Notes: Conditionals are usually introduced by ¨If¨. Other expressions are: unless (= If not), providing, provided (that) as long as, on condition (that), but for, +

Ing form – noun, otherwise, or else, what if, supposing, even if, only if, ETC.

Ex: You can leave provided you finish your work.

Will – Would are not normally used in if – clauses. ¨If they phone, tell them John has left¨.

If can be omitted in if – clauses. In this case should (conditionals type 1), were (conditionals type 2) and had (conditionals type 3) come before the subject.

Ex: If he should call, ask him to leave a message > should he call, ask him to leave a message.

Ex: If I had had the time, I would have looked for a second job > had I had the time, I would have looked for a second job.

Would and should can be used to give advice. See the examples below. I’d is the contraction of I would:
 
-I haven’t been feeling very well lately.

-If I were you, I’d see a doctor. Have you been getting enough sleep?

-No, I think I should try to sleep some more.



1. Complete the sentences in A with the endings in B. (Ex. 70 Tabloid)

A

1. - If we plan our work carefully,

2. - The doctor will see you

3. - If Mary sings so beautifully today,

4. - It can be bad for your health

5. - The lights may hurt your eyes

B

-- She will win the contest.

-- if they are very bright.

-- the results will be good.

-- if you smoke.

-- if you ask for an appointment.



2. Put each verb into the correct form: (Ex. 71 Tabloid )

1. - If you pay for the tickets, I___________ you to the theater. (take)

2. - I will write to my ant tomorrow if I ________ some free time. (find)

3. - He will do the work if he ________ the time. (have)

4.-If children anywhere read Martí, they ________ many interesting things. (learn)

5. - What will happen if she ____________ correctly? Answer)



3. Answer these questions: (Ex. 72 Tabloid)

1. - What is the sum if you add seven plus two?

2. - What do you think will happen if I marry your sister?

3. - What will he do if the homework is very difficult?

4. - Where will they go if the theater is close?

5. - How will she find the address if the houses are not numbered?



4. Complete the sentences below with a possibility. (Ex. Tabloid)

1-If you continue eating candy, ________________________________

2-If she doesn’t pay attention in class, ___________________________

3-If we move into another neighborhood, _________________________

4-If she has another boy, ______________________________________

5-If the day clears up, ________________________________________

5. Complete the answer to each question: (Ex. 73 Tabloid)

1-Do you have a baby?

-No, but if I had one, ________________________________

2-Does Linda study enough?

-No, but if she did, _________________________________

3-Can you play the piano?

-No, but if I could, ___________________________________

4-Are you John Chips?

-No, but if I were, ____________________________________

5-Is your sister a doctor?

-No, but if she were, __________________________________

6-Are there any problems here?

-No, but if there were, ________________________________-

6. Complete the conversations by giving advice:

1-I can’t see very well.

-If I were you, _______________________________________

2-I haven’t been exercising properly lately. Do you think I should see a doctor?

-No, I think you _______________________________________

3-My father was coughing all night.

-If I were your father, ___________________________________

4-Speaking in front of people really makes me nervous.

-If you practiced more, ___________________________________. Perhaps you should also. _____________________________________________.

5-Finger-feeding is not a good way of getting food into the mouth.

-If you lived in India, ______________________________________

DEAR DOCTOR:
 
Dear Dr. Evans:

I am a sixteen-year-old girl with a dream-to become a musician. I play the guitar and I write very good songs. I am very creative at writing songs and creating new styles. My father is a respectable, understanding and considerate man, but he doesn’t think a musician is a very respectable person. He tells me to complete my studies, and then we’ll discuss. What should I do?

Act as Dr. Evans and give some advice.

Dear Dr. Golden:

I am a fifteen-year-old boy, 170 cm tall and 80 Kg in weight. My arms are very big because I lift weights. Being so big and heavy, what do you think I should do?

Act as Dr. Golden and give some advice.



Language Summary 3

Another kind of hypothetical condition talks about situations in present or past in which the IF clause could not be true. Type 3 (unreal past) expresses an imaginary situation contrary to facts in the past. It is also used to express regrets or criticism.

e.g. If Tony had not missed classes, he wouldn’t have failed the test (hypothetical: it can’t be true because he did fail the test.)

e.g. If Tony had attended school regularly, he would have passed the test. (hypothetical: it can’t be true because Tony did not pass the test.)
 
NOTE:



IF Clause + Main Clause

( past perfect) ( would/might/ + have + present perfect)



If + past perfect (hypothesis) – would – could – might + have + past participle (main clause)

Ex: If he had come on time, we wouldn’t have missed the flight.



7. Supply the correct tense of the verbs in parentheses (Ex. 75 Tabloid)



-- If I had known you were in trouble, I _____(help) you.

-- If they ______(wait), they would have seen me.

-13- I’m sure my sister ______(go out) with you last weekend if you had asked her nicely.

-14- We ______ (enjoy) the play better if it hadn’t been so long.

-15- The dog would not have bitten you if it ________(be) tied up.



8. Complete the conversations by giving advice. Use conditionals.(Ex. 76 Tabloid)



-11- I overworked for months. That’s why I had a nervous breakdown.

__ ____________________________________________________

-12- You know, my husband didn’t know I would be late. I forgot to leave him a message.





-13- My kid walked on broken glass and cut his toes because someone dropped a bottle.

________________________________________________________________ 4- Rose did not write down your address; so, she got lost on the way to your place.

-14- Those neighbors were fined, as they threw the garbage out of the window.





9. COMPLETE THE FOLLOWING STATEMENTS:



If you had not reminded me about the meeting tonight ____________________

______________________________ if I had known.

If it had not rained, ________________________________________________

If Monica had studied computer science, ___________________________

If the biker had not run the red light, ___________________________________



Language Summary 4



The modal verbs may and might help express possibility. May usually refers to what is probable. Might is often used to state remote possibility.

e.g. A: Susan is very responsible. I wonder why she is late to work.

B: She might have overslept and missed the bus.

C: She may have felt sick all of a sudden.





10. State a possibility. (Ex. 78 Tabloid)



You’ve planned a business trip for lunch today, but some people still haven’t shown up.

Model: A: I wonder what’s keeping Sam.

B: He may / might have got lost.



Some questions:

What is keeping Sam?

Why is Carol so late?

Why isn’t Tom here?

Why didn’t Eve call?

What’s wrong with Bob?

What happened to Louis and Brenda?

Why hasn’t Mary arrived?



Some possibilities:

Maybe she was not near a phone.

Maybe something came up.

Maybe they got caught in traffic.

Maybe he got lost.

Maybe he forgot about the appointment.

Maybe her car broke down.

Maybe they didn’t understand your directions.

Maybe she missed her bus.

Maybe he lost your address.

Maybe his car got stuck in traffic.



11. Write the appropriate perfect modal form in the blanks. (Ex. 79 Tabloid)



Who killed Judge Clarence? His wife ______________ (do) so. She was in Switzerland learning how to ski. It __________ (be) his accountant. Apparently there was some trouble with money. But nobody thought his accountant would do such a thing. There were a few clues. His wallet was missing. His brother’s fingerprints were found on the candlestick that was used to kill the judge. His brother __________ (murder) him. But Detective Nancy Mann was not convinced. It all seemed too simple. The brother was rich and didn’t need the money. The murderer _________ (be) someone else, someone who was actually trying to get the brother in trouble with the law.
 
12. Write sentences derived from the story. Use the correct modal perfect form. (Ex. 80 Tabloid)



Two thousand years ago 20000 people lived in Pompeii, a city in southern Italy off the Bay of Naples. Pompeii was built at the foot of Vesuvius, a volcano 4000 feet high.



$11- Pompeii had a lot of ships in its harbor. Many wealthy Romans came to stay in its resorts. Statues and mosaics decorated many of its buildings. What kind of a city was Pompeii? __________________________________________

$12- For four days before the volcano erupted on August 24, A.D.79, there were tremors and vibrations under the ground. The volcano was smoking and no one could get water from the wells. How do you thing people in Pompeii felt? _________________________________________________________

$13- Less than twenty years before, there had been a serious earthquake in Pompeii. Some people felt the earth trembling on August 20, A.D.79, and decided to leave Pompeii right away. Why did they decide to leave? _____________________________________________________________

$14- Many people laughed at those who left. They didn’t believe there was any reason to be afraid. This mistake cost many of them their lives. They_________________________________________________________

$15- When the volcano erupted, people saw a great black cloud in the sky. It was like night even though it was daytime. Then the cloud started raining poisonous material. It rained on the nearby towns. Some people made the mistake of going down into their cellars rather than trying to escape by sea. They got trapped in their cellars. ____________________________________________________________

$16- Pliny the Elder, a famous Roman writer, took his ship and crew and sailed across the bay, exactly towards the place of greatest danger. Everyone else was going in the opposite direction. Pliny’s men asked him to turn back. He refused. Why? He __________________________________________________________



$17- There was enough room to turn the boat around. There was also enough time, even though some poisonous material was starting to fall from the sky. (Ex. 81 Tabloid)

Pliny ________________________________________________________ but he didn’t. He went on shore to look for a friend. Later he died on the beach.



13. Pretend you’re an advice columnist. Choose one of the following letters and write back giving advice. (Ex. 81 Tabloid)



Dear Mrs. Veltfort:

My hairdresser recently talked me into a new hairstyle that made me look like a porcupine. I hated it! Unfortunately, he thought it looked great. After he finished styling my hair, he proclaimed “It’s you!”

How do you think I should have responded?

Sally.



Dear Ms Ramon:

On a recent trip, I visited a relative I don’t know very well, one of my great aunts. She lives in a very rural area near the sea. Town is 50 km away. I’m her only nephew, so she was really looking forward to my visit. Everything was fine until we sat down to eat. When I asked her what was in the stew she had just served, she announced, “Octopus.”

I was so shocked that I refused to eat anything and I had to leave the table. I’m afraid that I hurt my great aunt’s feelings, even though later I said I was sorry. Now I’m wondering what I could have said to be more polite.

Animal lover



(well, seafood, anyway)


Language Summary 5
 
 
Giving advice, suggestions, and recommendations:
 
Suggestions and recommendations and advice can be classified under the following headings:
 
$1· Suggestions involving the speaker.

$1· Suggestions to another person.

$1· Reported suggestions.
 
$11. Suggestions involving the speaker:
 
Shall we / Why don't we discuss the problem?
 
Shall we let's start our practice now.
 
 
$11. Suggestions to another person:

Why don’t you get some outside help?

How about listening to other people’s opinions?
I suggest you to /I think you should / I advise you to / survey High School students.
 
 
It’s advisable to begin earlier.

I (would) recommend one of the major research centers.

$11. Reported suggestion:

The consultant advised us to review our plans

He suggested that we (should) list our strengths and weaknesses.



14. Tick the sentences that mean some advice or suggestions (Ex. 100 Tabloid)
 
  1. You should listen more carefully
  2. Don’t you think it is necessary?
  3. I guess you can do it.
  4. Why don’t you study more often?
  5. I had better hurry or I’ll be late.
  6. She had better chances to get it.
  7. They should have taken the umbrellas with them.
  8. You can’t use that footpath. It is closed.
  9. If I were you, I wouldn’t do it.
  10. If you came, you might see her.
15. Provide suitable suggestions and advise according to the situation. (Ex. 101 Tabloid)
 
  1. A friend of yours who doesn’t study very much.
  2. Your cousin doesn’t feel well.
  3. The people in the meeting have been talking too much about the same issue.
  4. The company is losing its financial capacity.
  5. The driver is not paying attention to the traffic lights.
  6. It is 10.30 am. Time for coffee.
  7. You want to start the meeting on Research and Development. What do you say?

 

Language Summary 6
 

 

Playing for time

Sometimes you are in a situation when you can not give exact answers or confirm a statement especially, in a diplomatic, business or political exchange

It is then necessary to use phrases or expressions to gain time.

e.g. Bear with me, I must consult my colleagues

I’ll have to think about that.

I need some time to consider your proposal.

16. Sometimes we meet new situations or problems and we have to say what action we’ll take. Write down possible statements you will use in each case. (ex. 88 Tabloid)

$11. A British delegation is visiting your community/ school. They are interested in some exchange relations. The person responsible for this will be with you in 2 hours time.

$12. You are leading a small delegation abroad and someone asks you about something you have no information about.



Language Summary 7
 

Clarification and repetition

In a conversation people very often do not understand everything that is said. So, we all need clarification and we request repetition to get the idea or meaning.

e.g Pardon me?

Do you understand what I mean?

Sorry, I am not following you.

17. Write down some of the common clarifying expressions according to the situations. (Ex. 89 Tabloid)

$11. You are the reception room. Someone says something you can’t hear well.

$12. In a meeting with members of a solidarity group, the leader asks you to interpret his speech. At a given moment he said the word “vitriolic” (crítica), what would you say?

$13. You want to be sure your partner at school understood all what you explained. Please say what you will probably ask him.

$14. In a formal meeting with important personalities, someone just asks you a question, but you don’t get its meaning. What may you say?

$15. You receive an e-mail with some unclear information. You phone the sender of the e-mail to clarify it. What could you ask him to do?

Language Summary 8
 

Interrupting

Attending meetings, getting together at home or at a restaurant for special celebrations is very common. Sometimes, they tend to be long due to the amount of interruptions. Speakers use different expressions to interrupt a conversation and say or add something.



e.g. Could I just say something?

Hold on a minute, I want to say....

Sorry to interrupt but...



Grammar Review (Grades 10 and 11)



The passive

We use the passive when we want to show that the action of the verb is more important than the person who carries out the action.

$1- The agent (the person who carries out the action) is introduced with the preposition by and is mentioned only when the identity of the agent is important or needs to be stated.

$1- The agent is not mentioned when:

$1a) It is unknown

$1b) It is unimportant

$1c) It is obvious from the context

To turn a sentence from the active into the passive:

$1a) The object of the active sentence becomes the subject in the passive sentence.

$1b) The active verb changes into a passive form.

$1c) The subject of the active sentence becomes the agent.
 
  subject
 
verb
 
object
 
active
 
Kim baked a cake.
 
  subject
 
verb
 
agent
 
passive
 
A cake was baked by Kim.
 
$1- Only the verbs that take an object can be turned into the passive.

Ex. Susan cleans the silver. The silver is cleaned by Susan.

It is snowing today.

$1- When the subject of the active sentence is one of the following words: people, one, someone/somebody, they, he, etc., the agent is often omitted in the passive sentence.

$1- Objects pronouns (me, you, him, etc.) become subject pronouns (I,you,he, etc.) in the passive.

Ex. He gave this book to me. I was given this book.

$1- When the verb of the active sentence is followed by a preposition, the preposition is kept in the passive sentence as well.

Ex. Burglars broke into our house last night. Our house was broken into last night.

Continuous and Perfect Passives: Form

$1- Continuous and perfect forms of the passive all have two auxiliaries before the past participle of a transitive verb.

$1- To form the present continuous passive, use am, is, or are + being + the past participle.

$1- To form the past continuous passive, use was, or were + being + the past participle.

$1- To form the present perfect passive, use have, or has + been + the past participle.

$1- To form the past perfect passive, use had + been + the past participle.

Statements Contractions

I am being helped. I’m

He is being helped. He’s

We are being helped. We’re



I was being helped.

They were being helped.



I have been helped. I’ve

He has been helped. He’s



I had been helped. I’d

18. Work with a partner. Complete the following conversation with the appropriate simple present form of the passive, using contractions whenever possible. Then practice the conversation.

A: When __________________________ (collect/trash) in your neighborhood?

B: It _________________________ (pick up) on Mondays, but we don’t have much trash anymore. Almost everything we use _________________ (recycle).

A: And _________________________ (collect/the recycled items) too?

B: Some of them __________________________ (collect). Newspapers, glass, and cans _______________________ (take away) by a private recycling company that ________________________ (pay) by the city.

A: And then what ________________________ (do) with all of that stuff?

B: It _________________________ (separate) once more and _________________ (sell) to other companies for recycling.

19. Work on your own. Create meaningful active or passive sentences in the past with the words in parentheses. Make the first word in parentheses the subject of your sentence.

$11- (the medicine/take/the patient)

Example: The medicine was taken by the patient.

$12- (the patient/take/the medicine)

Example: The patient took the medicine.

$13- (the glass/drop/ the child)

$14- (the concert/attend/thousands of people)

$15- (the cake/cost/quite a bit)

$16- (soccer/play/on Sundays at 2:00 P.M.)

$17- (we/cancel/the appointment)

$18- (the waiter/take/the order)

$19- (the car/repair/two mechanics)

$110-(the baby/cry/for an hour)

$111-(the package/mail/the woman/early in the morning)

$112-(the shoes/buy/at the mall)

Ver página 437 ex 20. Intermediate Grammar.

Ver página 89 ex 10 (inciso 5 no) Grammar Way II.



20. Rewrite the following passage in the passive.

Someone started a fire in the Courtney National Park early yesterday morning. They had used a match and some petrol to start the fire. The fire had burnt a lot of trees before someone called the fire brigade. The police have arrested a man. They are still questioning him.

21. Work with a partner. Use the simple present passive form of the verbs in parentheses to complete each definition. For numbers 6-9, use the verb in parentheses and your own words.

$11) Wine is an alcoholic beverage that ______________(make) from grapes.

$12) A guide dog is a canine that _______________(train) to lead a blind person.

$13) Grizzly bears are large, powerful animals that ______________(find) in North America.

$14) Mother’s Day is an international day that _________________(celebrate) on the second Sunday in May.

$15) Silk is a smooth, soft cloth that ___________(make) from fine thread. The thread _________________(produce) by a silkworm.

$16) Caffeine is a stimulant that _____________________________________(find).

$17) May Day is an international holiday that ________________________________ (celebrate).

$18) A mango is a fruit that _________________________________________(use).

$19) A tuxedo is a garment that _____________________________________(wear).

22. Work with a partner. Describe the results of the following situations using present and past perfect passive sentences with the words in parentheses.

$11. A serious flu epidemic has recently spread through your area.

(some schools/ close)

Example: some schools have been closed.

(several business/shut down)

(many public events/cancel)

(more doctors/need)

(several new treatments/try)

(many flu shots/give)

(hundreds of people/treat)
 
  1. An earthquake had rocked southern California before the hurricane hit the state.
(several homes/damage)

Example: Several homes had been damaged.

(one major road/close for an hour)

(twelve people/injure)

(one person/kill)

(many windows/shatter)

(one building/destroy)

(one person/hospitalize)

(no major power lines/affect)
 

The simple present and present progressive



We use simple present for permanent states or habitual actions, for repeated actions and daily routines.

Time expressions: every day, every morning, every year

in the afternoon, in the evening, at night

always, usually, often, never, rarely, sometimes



We use the present continuous for temporary actions happening at or around the moment of speaking.

Time expressions: now, at the moment, at present

The Simple Past



We use the simple past:

$11. for actions which happened at a definite or stated time in the past; that is, we know when they happened.

$12. for actions which happened repeatedly in the past but don’t happen any more. In this case we can use adverbs of frequency (always, often, usually, etc.)

$13. for actions which happened immediately one after the other in the past.

$14. to talk about people who are no longer alive.

Time expressions:

Yesterday, last night/week/month/year/Monday

Two days/weeks/years ago

$1· Remember that there are three possible pronunciations for the endings of regular verbs in the past in English. /t/ /d/ /id/

/Id/ when the verb ends in a /t/ or /d/ sound.

e.g. wanted, landed

/t/ when the verb ends in a /k/, /s/, /f/. /p/ sound and the sounds of ch, sh.

e.g. cooked, kissed, laughed, stopped, watched, washed

/d/ when the verb ends in any other sound.

e.g. arrived, prepared, showed



The simple future

To talk about the future we can use will… and be going to.



We generally use will:



$11. for future actions which may or may not happen.

$12. for predictions about the future.

$13. for threats or warnings (advertencias o amenazas)

$14. for promises or on-the-spot decisions (decisiones en el momento)

$15. With the verbs hope, think, believe, expect, etc., the expressions I’m sure, I’m afraid, etc, and the adverbs probably, perhaps, etc.

e.g. I think he will support me.





We generally use going to:



$1· For plans and intentions we have about the near future.

$1· When there is evidence that something is going to happen in the near future.

Time expressions: tomorrow, next week/ month/ year, /weekend

tonight, the day after tomorrow



(Nota: Aunque existe esta diferencia, en la comunicación se pueden usar ambas formas y se comprenderá que se refiere a actividades futuras)



Modals



1. We often use must, have to and have got to in place of each other, but sometimes not.

2. We tend to prefer must:

$1a. When we refer to ourselves. E.g. I really must go to the doctor.

$1b. With you to express urgency. You must phone home at once.

$1c. In public notices, etc. Cyclists must dismount.

$1d. Pressing invitations or advice: You must come and see us.

3. We often use have to (or have got to) to refer to outside authority: I have (got) to pay the fine before the end of the month.



SHOULD



Should is weaker than must or have to. It is often used to give advice, suggestions and opinions because it sounds more polite. We use should to say that something is a good idea, a good advice or it is correct.


 

Expressing ability

We can use can, could, be able to, manage to to describe ability.

$11. We can use can to describe natural and learned ability: I can run very fast.

$12. We can use could, could not or was/were (not) able to describe ‘general ability in the past’: I could (was able to) run very fast when I was younger.

$13. We use was/were able to or manage to(not could) to describe the successful completion of a specific action: We were able to (managed to) get the tickets for the match yesterday.(not could)

$14. However, we can use couldn’t to describe a specific action not successfully completed: We couldn’t get tickets for the match yesterday. Or we weren’t able to/didn’t manage to get the tickets for the match yesterday.



$15. Can and could are not ‘complete verbs’, so we use be able to and sometimes manage to if, for example, we want to express the future or the present perfect: I will be able to pass my driving test after I have had a few lessons (not I can/I will can)



Infinitive and -ing form



We use the –ing form:

$1· As a noun.eg. Exercising is good for your health.

$1· After the verbs like, dislike, love, hate, enjoy, etc.

e.g. Dorothy loves writing poems.

$1· After prepositions. E.g. Katia is good at playing tennis.

$1· After the verb go when we talk about activities. e.g. The couple went camping.

The infinitive can also be used to express likes and dislikes and there is not much difference in meaning.

Like/love plus –ing form means that something is general.

e.g. I love reading. (Means I love reading in general.)

Like to/love has a more exact and specific meaning.

e.g. I love to read when I am bored. (Means I like to read especially in certain situations).



Past continuous



There are five uses of the past progressive tense. We use it for:



$11. Temporary actions in progress in the past: I was living in Villa Clara in 1976.

We often use all to emphasize continuity (all day, all summer): It was raining all night.

$12. Actions which were in progress when something else happened:

Just as / when I was leaving, the phone rang.

These are often introduced by conjunctions like when, as, just as and while, but the shorter action can be introduced by when: We were having supper when the bell rang.

We use the past continuous and the simple past together to say that something happened in the middle of something else.

$13. Actions in progress at the same time: While I was reading, Joan was playing the piano.

$14. Repeated actions with e.g. always: When I worked here, I was always making mistakes.

$15. Polite inquiries: I was wondering if you could give me a lift.



Would and Used to:



We use would when we look back on the past and remember things that often happened. It expresses past repeated actions and routines. When we were children, we lived by the sea. In summer if the weather was nice, every Sunday, we would all get up early and go for a swim.



Used to is also possible in this sentence. It is used to say that something regularly happened in the past but no longer happens. It expresses past habits or states. It forms its negative and interrogative with did and is the same for all persons:

I used to smoke a lot when I was younger, but I stopped five years ago.

Did you use to smoke when you were younger?


 

Used to + base form of the verb is always past. There is no present.

Past He used to play tennis

Present He plays tennis



Be careful not to confuse I used to do and I am used to doing. The structures and meanings are different.

I am used to doing means that something isn’t strange for me: I am used to playing tennis. I play every Saturday.



( Would y Used to + la forma simple del verbo se usa para hablar sobre acciones que ocurrieron en el pasado y ya no ocurren. I am used to doing se usa para referirse a acciones que se acostumbran a realizar en el presente)



Present Perfect

Present perfect) have / has + past participle) is used for:

$1· Recently completed actions: My father has finished fixing the fence.

$1· Complete past actions connected to the present with stated or unstated time reference: I have worked all day and I’m tired.

$1· Personal experiences or changes which have happened: Sally has gained some weight recently.

Present perfect continuous (Have + been + verb-ing) is used for:

$1· Actions started in the past and continuing up to the present: I have been working here since 1989.

$1· Past actions of certain duration having visible results or effects in the present: She has been practicing sports for many years, now she is in good shape.

$1· Expressing anger, irritation, annoyance, explanation or criticism: He has been playing that horrible music all day long.

Time expressions used with present perfect and present perfect continuous: just, ever, never, already, yet, (negations and questions), always, how long, so far, recently, since (= from a starting point in the past), for (=over a period of time), today, this week/month, etc.

Note how the following words are used:

$1· Ago (= back in time from now) is used with Simple past: Tom left an hour ago.

$1· Before (=back in time from then): He told me that Tom had left an hour before (una hora antes)

$1· Still is used in statements and questions after the auxiliary verb or before the main verb: He can still play tennis. He still works here. Still comes before the auxiliary verb in negations: He still can’t find a solution to his problem.

$1· Already is used with present perfect in mid or end position in statements and questions: He has already finished copying. Have you finished already?

$1· Yet is used with perfect tenses in negative statements after a contracted auxiliary verb or at the end of the sentence: He hasn’t yet called in. He hasn’t called us yet. Has he called yet?

 

The past perfect tense



We form the past perfect with had + the past participle. We use the past perfect tense to:

$1a. Talk about something that had already happened before something else in the past to make a sequence of events clear: When my sister came, I had already left.

$1b. It is also the past of the present perfect.

Present: I’m not hungry. I have just had lunch.

Past: I was not hungry. I had just had lunch.

Future forms

We can refer to future actions in English with these verb tenses: Simple future, Future with “going to”, Present Continuous, Simple Present and others.

Simple Future

Will is used:
 
  • In predictions about the future which may or may not be certain.
His parents think he will probably be an architect.
 
  • For on-the-spot decisions and offers.
Don’t worry. I’ll do it for you.
 
  • We can also use will with words: think, hope, believe, probably, certainly, etc.
I’m going to have a party. I hope you will probably be able to come.
 
  • For actions which will happen in the future and we cannot control.
Jill will be two years old next month.
 
  • For promises, threats or warnings.
If pollution levels don’t drop, we won’t be able to breathe.

Future with “going to”

It is used:
 
  • For plans, intentions and ambitions.
She’s going to enter the university next fall.
 
  • In predictions about the future when there is evidence to support it.
He is ahead. He’s going to win.

Present Continuous

It is used:
 
  • For fixed arrangements in the near future.
He is leaving for the airport in 10 minutes.

Simple Present

It is used with a future meaning:
 
  • When we refer to programs, schedules, timetables, etc.
The train leaves at 5 p.m.





The future Continuous
 
  • It is used to express prediction of a temporary action in progress at a particular point in the future.
a. This time tomorrow we will be taking the final exam.

b. The winner will be presenting his project at the next meeting.
 
  • It is also used to talk about events that are the result of or part of an arrangement made in the past:
c. We will be coming back from Matanzas on Saturday.
 
  • It is used for future events we see as certain because they are part of a routine, especially when the event continues for a period of time, e.g. a festival, a meeting:
d. The rock band will be performing every night of the festival.



This verb tense requires the auxiliaries will be + the present participle of the main verb:



They will be living in their new house next month.


 
Asking for information, instructions or directions


When you ask someone to show you or to explain how something is done, you need to use indirect questions.

Let’s see this example: Please, show how I can make a cake.

Notice:

$1· That the usual word order of the direct question changes.

Direct question: How can I go to your house?

Tom explained “I want to go to Santiago”

Indirect question: Tell me how I can get to your house, please.

Tom explained where he wanted to go.

$1· That we don’t use quotation marks or question marks in indirect question.

$1· Tense changes: Present becomes past.

A subordinate clause depends on a main clause. It cannot stand by itself as a sentence.

$11. A subordinate clause starts with the relative pronouns :

$1a. Who/that used for people: The girl who/that works in this office is the tourist agent.

$1b. Whose used for people and things to show possession: This is the manager whose company has started business with us.

$1c. Whom/that (a quién) used for people as the object of the verb of the relative clause: The boy whom you met at the party is my cousin.

$1d. Which used for things: This is the machine which we repaired recently.

$1e. Where used to talk about places: This is the office where I work.

$1f. Whom, which, whose can be used in expressions of quantity with of (some of, many of, etc.): This company has three branches two of which are in the capital city.

$1g. We do not normally use prepositions before relative pronouns. They are used at the end of the clause. The man whom you are talking about....

Relative clauses are classified as defining and non-defining.

$1· A defining relative clause gives necessary information and is essential to the meaning of the main clause. It is not put between commas: The person who directs this company must be able to speak two languages.

$1· A non-defining relative clause gives extra information which is not essential to the meaning of the main clause. It is put between commas: Ann, who is an excellent person, is the accountant of the company.




Word formation



There are different ways to help us increase the number of words we know. One of them is to study the parts of words which give clues to the whole meaning they have. By breaking the word down into meaningful parts, you can often form a definition or make a reasonable guess at its meaning. For example, the word sailor has two important parts: sail (meaning to travel on water in a ship) and or (meaning o ne who does), so you can easily infer that a sailor is a mariner or, one that travels on water in a ship.

Of course, to be able to locate meaningful parts correctly it is necessary to be familiar with the ways in which words are formed in English. We will refer to some of them: derivation, composition, shortening and zero derivation. We will see the processes separately and practice the way in which words are formed following them.
 

Derivation

Words can be formed by means of the addition of affixes (prefixes, suffixes) to roots: sail (root) +or (suffix) / un (prefix) +happy (root).

We will list some common English prefixes and suffixes and their meanings:
 

Prefixes

Meaning

Example

un-
 
not
 
unhappy
 
in-, im-,ir-, il-
 
not
 
incredible, impossible, irregular, illegal
 
dis-
 
not
 
dishonor, discover, distract
 
a-
 
without
 
amoral
 
de-
 
to reverse the action of
 
decode, decompose, degenerate, dehumanize
 
super-
 
better, extra
 
supernatural
 
sub-
 
under, lower than, less than
 
subway, subnormal
 
hyper-
 
extra
 
hypercritical, hyperacid
 
mini-
 
little
 
miniskirt, mini tennis
 
co-
 
with, together
 
cooperate, coexist
 
inter-
 
between, among
 
international
 
ex-
 
past, former
 
ex-wife
 
re-
 
again
 
rewrite, review
 
pre-
 
before in time

before in place
 
Pre university

prefix(attached to the front of a root)
 
post-
 
after in time

after in place
 
postpone

postnasal(behind the nose)
 
  Suffixes
 
Meaning
 
Example
 
Noun suffixes
 
-er, -or, -ar
 
one who
 
worker, lawyer, sailor, liar
 
  -ist
 
one who
 
artist, motorist, novelist
 
  -cian
 
one who
 
musician, electrician

mathematician
 
  -ary, -ery, -ory
 
a place where
 
armory, bakery,

reformatory
 
  -hood
 
status
 
childhood, womanhood, brotherhood
 
  -ness
 
state, condition
 
kindness, sickness
 
  -ment
 
state, process
 
amazement,

development
 
  -ship
 
state, condition
 
citizenship, friendship, authorship
 
  -ance/-ence
 
action or process
 
performance, importance, conference, existence
 
  -ion
 
act or process

state or condition
 
action, expansion,

opposition
 
  -ity
 
quality, state, degree
 
similarity, purity,

simplicity
 
Adjective suffixes
 
-y
 
characterized by,

full of
 
dirty, lucky, shiny
 
  -ous
 
full of, having,

possessing the

qualities of
 
famous, nervous,

religious, mysterious
 
  -al
 
full of, having,

possessing the

qualities of
 
natural, dental
 
  -ish
 
being
 
childish, foolish, Spanish
 
  -ive
 
that performs or

tends toward
 
active, attractive

digestive, explosive
 
  -ful
 
full of, having
 
useful, beautiful,

wonderful
 
  -able
 
capable of
 
readable, changeable
 
  -less
 
without
 
homeless, childless
 
Verb suffixes
 
-ify
 
make, form to
 
acidify, certify,

intensify
 
  -ate
 
one acted upon
 
circulate, formulate
 
  -ize
 
cause to be or

conform to
 
memorize, legalize
 
  -en
 
cause to be,
 
brighten, harden,

sharpen
 
Adverb suffix
 
-ly
 
In a specified manner
 
slowly, rapidly,

beautifully, nicely
 
Note: Sometimes the addition of suffixes does not imply the formation of a new

word but they only indicate aspects such as the number of objects, persons

or phenomena; the moment in which actions take place or possession. e.g:

My friends are waiting for me at Freddy’s.
 
Composition

One word is formed by means of the combination of at least two of them that produce an entirely new unit: class+room to form classroom, meaning a place where classes meet; high+way+man to form highwayman, meaning a person who robs travellers on a road.

The meaning of this new unit is sometimes very different from the ones of its components:e.g blackmail means extortion by threats of public exposure, meaning which is unrelated to the ones expressed by black and mail separately.
 

Shortening

Also new words are formed by means of reduction: lab from laboratory, motel from motorist + hotel or UNICEF from United Nations Children’s Fund. The process is called shortening and it is used communicate faster.
 

Zero Derivation

Other word-forming process is to coin a new word without apparently adding any other element. For example, from the noun book, the verb to book has been created, meaning to write or register in a book. The new word has been formed by zero derivation, a very frequent word-building process in English.

SMALL TALK

Usually a social conversation about unimportant things, often between people who do not know each other well

e.g

Great weather, isn’t it?

Nice day, isn’t it?

Yes. It feels like it’s still summer.

Here are some situations. What might you say as a small talk?

$1· You are in Cespedes Park in Santiago de Cuba and a visitor sits next to you.

$1· It is raining and you and another person, probably Japanese, shelter under the same roof.

$1· At the Fitness Center a middle-aged European -like woman just starts her Physical training. You have never seen her before.

$1· At an international conference a delegate from Africa stands next to you at the coffee shop.

At the International Youth Festival a delegate from the Caribbean sits next you in a special conference.
 
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